Since the isolation and sequencing of cholecystokinin (CCK), considerable advances have been made in understanding the roles played by this peptide as a hormone and as a neuropeptide. CCK-1(A) and 2(B) receptor (R) cDNAs have been cloned; shortly thereafter, the naturally occurring CCK-1R gene-deficient rat (the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat) was discovered. This strain develops adult-onset diabetes with obesity, and has a 6847 base-pair deletion of the CCK-1R gene in which the promoter lesion and the first two exons are missing. At the same time, the genomic structures of CCK-1R in rats, mice, and humans were clarified. The CCK-1R gene consists of five exons interrupted by four introns. It has been determined that there is species- and tissue-specific CCK receptor heterogeneity of expression; in particular, there is evidence that the human pancreas does not express CCK-1R, while the pancreas in rodents primarily expresses CCK-1R. Although CCK-1R polymorphisms with amino acid changes such as 21Gly to Arg, 71 Arg to Gly, and 364 Val to Ile were discovered in subjects with obesity and diabetes mellitus, these changes occur sporadically. We identified two sequence changes, a G to T change in nucleotide – 128, and an A to G change in nucleotide – 81, in the promoter region of the CCK-1R gene. This polymorphism is considered to be a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) related to weight control difficulties in obese subjects as well as to psychiatric disorders. The precise molecular mechanisms of this polymorphism remain to be clarified.