Ischemic myocardial disease, the main cause of heart failure, is a major public health and economic problem. Given the aging population, heart failure is becoming an increasing clinical issue and a substantial financial burden. Thus, research in heart failure is of relevant interest and importance, involving specialties such as cellular and molecular biology, tissue engineering, genetics, biophysics and electrophysiology. Stem cell-based regenerative therapy is undergoing experimental and clinical trials in order to limit the consequences of decreased contractile function and compliance of damaged ventricles following myocardial infarction or in patients presenting non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathies. This biological approach is particularly attractive due to the potential for myocardial regeneration with a variety of myogenic and angiogenic cell types. The development of a bio-artificial myocardium using biological or synthetic matrix is a new challenge.
Keywords: Stem cell transplantation, cellular cardiomyoplasty, tissue engineering, artificial myocardium, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy
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