In the third decade of the Helicobacter pylori era several informations are available on its pathogenetic mechanisms, as well as on therapeutic approaches. A 7-14 day triple or quadruple regimens (proton pump inhibitor together with 2 antibiotics) are currently suggested as first-line treatment, but the success rate following these therapy is constantly decreasing worldwide. Therefore, new drugs are needed to treat such a widespread infection. Several patents of new antibiotics have been claimed in the last 5 years, and some of them showed a very powerful antibacterial activity in vitro, even against clarithromycin and metronidazole resistant strains. Among the new compounds, thienylthiazole derivatives, benzamide derivatives and pyloricidins should be regarded as very promising molecules.