More than half of patients with malignancy present with a pleural effusion at some time in their course. Recurrent malignant pleural effusions (MPE) impair functions and worsen the quality of life. Once a patient develops MPE, only mechanical drainage relieves pulmonary compression and dyspnea. Optimal treatment is however, still controversial. During January 2001 to January 2006, our group treated 48 patients with outpatient insertion of chronic indwelling pleural catheter (IPC), Pleurx (Pleurx™, Surgimedics, Denver Biomaterials, Denver, CO, USA). Primary malignancy of 48 patients included: 27 lung cancers, 11 mesotheliomas, 5 breast cancers, 3 colon cancers, 2 pancreas cancers and 1 ovarian cancer. Eligibility for IPC required prior thoracentesis with histological confirmation of malignancy and chest roentgenogram evidence of effusion. All patients treated were made aware of their prior malignancy and positive cytology for MPE. Major complications, as systemic or pleural infections, were not registered. Permanence mean time of IPC was estimated as 88 days. Median time of draining interval was 7.0 days with maximum amount of effusion drained off being 1000 ml. Pleurodesis occurred in 23 of 48 (47.92%) patients with a mean time of pleurodesis being 43 days. IPC allows ambulatory treatment with a safe and effective drainage of MPE and is an alternative treatment to procedures in use.