There are many similarities in molecular mechanisms of neuronal cell death observed in ischemic stroke and Alzheimers disease. From point of organelle damage, we introduced molecular events seen in ischemic stroke, and compared the findings with that observed in Alzheimers disease. In the brain after ischemia, transmembrane potential and ion gradient are disturbed at very early stage. Several drugs are aimed to minimize this change, some of which were effective in experimental models. Calcium blocker and glutamate antagonist were also effective for Alzheimers disease. As for mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum damage, both disorders share common pathological findings such as proapoptotic signals activation. However, there are some molecules which are neuroprotective in Alzheimers disease but pro-apoptotic in ischemic neurons. We need to be so careful for judging the significance of a phenomenon obtained by an experiment. Lysosome, called as suicide bag, play important roles both in the brain of ischemic stroke and Alzheimers disease. Leak of lysosomal enzymes influence, at least partially, the fate of neurons under pathological conditions in both disorders.