Anemia most frequently accompanies infection in varying degrees and in different forms. Anemia of inflammation is the most common and is due to over-expression of hepcidin. This is followed by hemolytic anemia, red cell aplasia and blood loss. The degree of anemia may not necessarily be proportional to the severity of the infection, nor is it specific for the type of infection. A clear understanding of these diverse causes and a recognition that they often occur in combination can be of enormous assistance in forming a proper diagnosis and an appropriate management plan.
Keywords: Anemia, infection, chronic inflammation, hemolysis, hepcidin, hemolytic anemia, red cell aplasia, blood loss, Red cell aplasis of bone marrow, Parvo virus, Viral hemorrhagic fevers, normocytic normo-chromic anemia, normocytic hypochromic, anemia of chronic diseases (ACD), rheumatoid arthritis, chronic pulmonary infections, subacute bacte-rial, endocarditis, urologic infections, osteomye-litis, chronic fungal disease, meningitis, human immu-nodeficiency viral infections, microcytic hypochromic anemia, reticuloendothelial iron, serum ferritin, erythrocyte protophor-phyrin, erythropoietin, enterocytes, hepatocytes, macro-phages, anoxia, oxygen-sensing regulatory pathway, hemochromatosis, malaria, babesiosis, Clostridium perfringens, Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Hemolytic uremic syndrome, E. coli
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