Naproxen is a propionic acid derivative related to the arylacetic acid group. This drug is one of the most popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. It is a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor and is advocated for use in painful and inflammatory rheumatic and non-rheumatic conditions. In low risk patients, naproxen and ibuprofen may be the first choice agents because they are effective, well tolerated and inexpensive. Naproxen is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with an in vivo bioavailability of 95% and elimination half-life is 12 to 17 h. It has a volume of distribution of 0.16 L/Kg and at therapeutic levels, it is more than 99% albumin-bound. Although introduced long back, several efforts have been done to develop its prodrugs and analytical procedures. The current article describes chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, interactions and contraindications of naproxen. A special emphasis is laid on the review of recent literature of various prodrugs synthesized and analytical methods developed for determination of naproxen in pharmaceutical preparations.