Colon cancer is among the most common cancers and the third cause of cancer deaths worldwide. If detected at an early stage, treatment might often lead to cure. The present review adduces the so far studied alterations in the expression of genes, as well as polymorphisms of genes engaged in DNA repair systems, with particular emphasis on indirect ones that are correlated with colorectal cancer. Such aberrations could be linked to an increased risk for the development of colorectal cancer and might serve as potential targets in the areas of prevention and therapy.
Keywords: Biomarker, colorectal carcinogenesis, DNA repair, gene polymorphism, genetic instability, genetic predisposition, mutations, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome, microsatellite instability, replication, DNA double helix, chromatid, DNA polymerase, pyrimidine dimers, photolyase
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