The development of antimicrobial treatments for respiratory pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF) has been an integral component to the increased survival of CF patients over the past fifty years. Despite significant treatment advances, however, respiratory failure secondary to chronic bacterial pulmonary infection remains the primary cause of death in CF patients. The purpose of this review is to discuss emerging pathogens (other than Pseudomonas) in CF by describing the characteristics of the organism, their clinical significance in CF, their mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and the current treatment approaches including newer pharmaceutical modalities. This review will focus on the following pathogens: Burkholderia cepacia complex, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and nontuberculous mycobacteria The goal is to familiarize the reader with the challenges in treating pulmonary infections in CF caused by multi-drug resistant pathogens and to highlight some of the newer pharmaceutical treatments that are currently the focus of intense research.
Keywords: Cystic fibrosis, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter, respiratory pathogens, nontuberculous mycobacteria, multi-drug resistant pathogens, β-lactam drugs, chronic infection, biofilm formation
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