The female reproductive organs such as ovary, uterus, and placenta are some of the few adult tissues that exhibit regular intervals of rapid growth, and are highly vascularized and have high rates of blood flow. Angiogenesis is a process of vascular growth that is mainly limited to the reproductive system in healthy adult animals. The development of new blood vessels in the ovary and uterus is essential to guarantee the necessary supply of nutrients and hormones. The genetic and molecular mechanisms that control the development of capillary blood vessels in the reproductive organs are beginning to be elucidated. Reproductive organs contain and produce angiogenic factors which may act alone or in concert to regulate the process of vasculature. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and fibroblast growth factor (FGFs) are key factors for vascular system in the reproductive organs. Recent numerous studies reported several roles of VEGFs and FGFs on ovarian and uterine functions. In this review, we focus on the involvement of VEGFs and FGFs as angiogenic factors on reproductive organs and vascular therapy for diseases of reproductive organs using anti-angiogenic agents.
Keywords: VEGFs, FGFs, angiogenesis, microvasculature, reproductive organs, vascular growth, hormones, endometrial growth, atresia, vascular therapy
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