Both classic and emerging literature point to sex-based disparity in neuronal metabolism. While detectable under baseline conditions, this phenomenon appears to be exaggerated or sometimes unmasked in neurons by cellular stress. A complex sex-dependent response to nutrient deprivation, excitotoxicity, oxidative/nitrositive stress, oxygen-glucose deprivation, and chemical toxicity has been observed in neurons in vitro, as well as after various insults including ischemic or traumatic brain injury in vivo. Importantly, sex-based disparity in response to diverse therapeutics has been seen in neurons in culture, contemporary animal models of brain injury, and in human disease. These have clear implications for pharmacological design of therapeutics targeting central nervous system diseases involving both males and females, and preclinical testing of promising agents.
Keywords: Apoptosis, autophagy, gender, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, nutrient deprivation, starvation, neuronal metabolism, ischemia, cachexia
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