The Optimal Diagnosis of Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder
Alan M. Nieder,
Fernando J. Bianco.
Urothelial cancer (UC) of the bladder is a relatively common disease seen in Americans, especially those who have significant tobacco exposure history. While the signs and symptoms of UC can be straight-forward (e.g., hematuria, irritative voiding symptoms), a complete work-up is required to appropriately stage each patient. The work-up of UC consists of: a high level of suspicion for patients with hematuria to prevent missed or delayed diagnoses; an exam under anesthesia; imaging studies; urinary markers and cytology; cystoscopy and transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT), as well as potential repeat TURBT to prevent understaging and residual disease.
Keywords: Urothelial cancer, bladder cancer, TURBT, diagnosis
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