The concept of localization and delocalization in molecules is discussed in terms of the response of the electronic system to an external perturbation. It is argued that both the spatial organization of electrons in pairs and the spatial distribution of the response intensity, reflect main features of the correlated motion of electrons, ultimately described by the pair distribution function of electrons. Various measures, derived from the linear charge density response function, are able to characterize localization in a rigorous way, in close analogy to the approach followed in solid state physics.
Keywords: Electron localization, linear response, Resta localization index, bond order, localized orbitals, exchange hole, distributed polarizabilities, fluctuation-dissipation theorem, POLARIZABILITY, EXCHANGECORRELATION HOLE, Hartree-Fock (HF), Kohn-Sham (KS), TDCHF (time-dependent coupled Hartree-Fock), dipole oscillator strength distributions (DOSD), Delocalization Indices, MOLECULAR ORBITAL LOCALIZATION CRITERIA
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