Role of the Autonomic Nervous System in the Endothelial Dysfunction of the Metabolic Syndrome
Dora Ines Molina,
In the last decade there has been an accelerated growth in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), especially in Latin American countries, which has led an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Recently has been raised the relationship between the autonomic nervous system (ANS), endothelial dysfunction (ED) and the appearance of MS. In the present article we review the evidence that support the proposal that abdominal obesity (AO) produce adypokines that result in insulin resistance and low degree inflammation, which increase the activity of ANS, causing vasoconstriction, hypertension, decreased peripheral glucose uptake, and decreased secretion of insulin, leading to hyperglycemia and increased lipolysis and hypertriglyceridemia. All these factors cause ED, explaining the higher risk of the patients with MS of developing DM2 and CVD.
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction, autonomic nervous system, low degree inflammation, insulin resistance, preeclampsia, myocardial infarction, adipose tissue
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