Therapeutic Applications of the PhiC31 Integrase System
Christopher L. Chavez and Michele P. Calos
Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5120, USA.
Keywords: att site, genetic disease, genomic integration, hemophilia, induced pluripotent stem cells, liver, non-viral, phage, serine recombinase, site-specific
The potential use of the ΦC31 integrase system in gene therapy opens up the possibilities of new treatments for old diseases. ΦC31 integrase mediates the integration of plasmid DNA into the chromsomes of mammalian cells in a sequence- specific manner, resulting in robust, long-term transgene expression. In this article, we review how ΦC31 integrase mediates transgene integration into the genomes of target cells and summarize the recent preclinical applications of the system to gene therapy. These applications encompass in vivo studies in liver and lung, as well as increasing ex vivo uses of the system, including in neural and muscle stem cells, in cord-lining epithelial cells, and for the production of induced pluripotent stem cells. The safety of the ΦC31 integrase system for gene therapy is evaluated, and its ability to provide treatments for hemophilia is discussed. We conclude that gene therapy strategies utilizing ΦC31 integrase offer great promise for the development of treatments in the future.
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