Inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have entered the landscape of treatment for advanced RCC. Their development has been based on their unique biology and their potential to simultaneously inhibit both tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Despite the solid biologic rationale for their development, existing clinical data is somewhat mixed. Although Temsirolimus is capable of improving overall survival it does so only in a minority of selected mRCC patients and its effects on tumor burden reduction and PFS are minimal. Similarly the activity and clinical utility of Everolimus in the refractory setting is questionable. First, because it is unknown if mTOR becomes the major driver or cancer growth after developing progressive disease on a VEGF inhibitor and secondly because existing sequential VEGF data in same setting appears to be the same if not a bit more robust to that reported with Everolimus. Combination of mTOR and VEGF inhibitors has been disappointing due to the excessive toxicities encountered in early trials without a noticeable difference in efficacy. Efforts are now placed in a series of novel compounds capable of inhibiting both mTOR and the upstream signaling pathway of PI3K/AKT.
Keywords: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Temsirolimus, Everolimus, hrombocytopenia, mucositis, vomiting, hematologic toxicity, Sorafenib, endothelial cells
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