Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is predominantly refractory to treatment with traditional cytotoxic chemotherapies, and until recently management options were limited to immunotherapy, palliative care, or phase I trials. The past five years have witnessed a major change in the treatment of advanced RCC with the introduction of targeted therapies that derive their efficacy through affecting angiogenesis. The main class of agents involves drugs that target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Several VEGF inhibitors are now approved for the treatment of metastatic RCC. The field is expanding rapidly with goals including 1) developing novel more potent and better tolerated agents and 2) defining the role of combination and sequential anti-VEGF regimens.
Keywords: Renal cell carcinoma, VEGF, angiogenesis, targeted therapy, Sorafenib, Tivozanib, Dovitinib, Aflibercept, Ramucirumab, Linifanib
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