Alendronate, a nitrogen containing bisphosphonate (BPP), when given p.o., decreases the transmucosal potential difference by direct irritating action, resulting in non-hemorrhagic lesions in both the corpus and antrum of fasted rats, and after re-feeding produces large ulcers in the antrum with increased vascular permeability and submucosal edema. The pathogenesis of these ulcers may be explained by the impairment of the mucosal anti-oxidative system and does not involve acid digestion as well as a deficiency of prostaglandins (PGs). Alendronate, although does not affect cyclooxygenase/ PGE2 production in the ulcerated mucosa, but impairs the healing of gastric ulcers in rats, and this effect may be related to the down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), the important growth factors for the vascularization/granulation as well as the suppression of the stimulatory action of epidermal growth factor on the epithelial proliferation/migration. Rebamipide, a mucosal protective and antiulcer drug, does not affect the direct irritating action of alendronate in the gastric mucosa but prevents the alendronate-induced antral ulceration, probably due to anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. In addition, this agent also antagonizes the healing impairment action of alendronate by counteracting the down-regulation of bFGF expression in the ulcerated mucosa. It is assumed that rebamipide is a promising drug that can be used as a prophylactic against the adverse effects of BPPs in the stomach.
Keywords: Bisphosphonate, alendronate, gastric ulcerogenic action, healing impairment action, rebamipide, edema, pathogenesis, fibroblast, vascularization, prophylactic, antiresorptive, esophagitis, triphosphate, malondialdehyde, propionic acid, indomethacin, exfoliation
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