Opiate substitution therapies have largely contributed to improving outcomes in opiate dependent patients. Their impact has significantly diminished HIV transmission rates, decreased incidence of overdose and reduced delinquency due to heroin trafficking. Since then, some advances have been made in the formulations and dosing regimen of these treatments. They have also largely facilitated opiate withdrawal. However, concerning the maintenance of opiate abstinence, very few new treatments have been proposed. Despite considerable advances in our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms of opiate dependence, few clinical trials have been proposed to test new molecules both in accompanying opiate substitution and in maintaining abstinence from illicit opiate use. The objective of this article is to examine the evidence concerning the treatment of opiate dependent patients, especially new treatments and to examine the eventual gaps between currently knowledge, available treatment and demands.
Keywords: Opiate substitution treatment, opiate withdrawal, methadone, buprenorphine, naltrexone, lofexidine, clonidine, Opiate, delinquency, illicit, psychotherapy, fibrillation, enantiomers, arrhythmias, morphine, psychiatric, psychoactive, benzodiazepines
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport