Glycopeptide antibiotics, vancomycin and teicoplanin, inhibit cell wall synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria by interacting with peptidoglycan D-Ala-D-Ala peptide stem termini of the pentapeptide side chains of the peptidoglycan precursors. In glycopeptide-resistant bacteria, multiresistance poses major therapeutic problems. New potent antibacterial agents are needed to combat these resistance problems, resulting in the explosion of novel glycopeptides in recent years. The glycosylation patterns of glycopeptides and the chemical modifications of the glycosyl moieties greatly influence their antibiotic activity, and certain combinations have resulted in highly active new compounds. Considerable efforts have been made to produce semisynthetic glycopeptides with improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and activity towards resistant strains. This review provides an overview of the chemistry, the antimicrobial activity, the pharmacokinetics and the toxicology of teicoplanin and other glycopeptide antibiotic derivatives.
Keywords: Dalbavancin, glycopeptides, oritavancin, semisynthetic derivatives, teicoplanin, telavancin, vancomycin, multiresistance, antibacterial agents, glycosylation, antibiotic activity, pharmacokineti, toxicology of teicoplanin, glycopeptide antibiotic derivatives, antibiotics
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