Medical Treatment of Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism
Peter Vestergaard and Susanna vid Streym Thomsen
Affiliation: Osteoporosis Clinic,Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus Amtssygehus,Tage Hansens Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark.
Hyperparathyroidism is a condition with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). The increase may be due to a) primary hyperparathyroidism which is caused by adenoma of one or more parathyroid glands or hyperplasia of all four glands, b) secondary hyperparathyroidism, which may be caused by deficiency in vitamin D or uremia, and 3) tertiary hyperparathyroidism, which most often is the result of a long-standing, severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, which has turned autonomous once the cause of the secondary hyperparathyroidism has been removed. Many new treatment options have been introduced in recent years. Cinacalcet is a calcium sensing receptor agonist, which by stimulating the receptor decreases PTH and calcium levels. It may be used in primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by uremia, which may not be controlled with calcium and activated vitamin D. It may also be used in tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Newer analogues of vitamin D such as paricalcitol have also been introduced, which may have an advantage over traditional compounds such as alphacalcidol and calcitriol.
Keywords: Alphacalcidol, calcitriol, cinacalcet, hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone, paricalcitol, uremia, vitamin D, pregnancy
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