Bioconjugation, a novel technique is usually exploited to improve the biopharmaceutical aspects of a bioactive as well as afford its spatial and temporal distribution. The strategy enlightens newer vistas for delivery of drugs, peptides, enzymes, and oligonucleotides. Site specific delivery may be obtained by tailoring the conjugates as an inactive prodrug and designing polymer drug linkages susceptible to cleavage by specific enzymes or pH. These prodrugs substantially change the mechanisms of cellular entry, pharmacokinetic disposition and ultimately target the drug. The conjugate vehicles are being exploited for targeting pharmacological agents to visceral tissues viz brain, colon etc. These biomaterials are bringing into play, novel drug delivery systems for selectively and specifically ferrying drugs to the desired organ. Noteworthy contributions reported with bioconjugated nanoparticles for biosensing and bioimaging incorporate cell staining, DNA detection, separation and recombination relevance in DNA protection. Only recently, these tailor-made polymers have also gained impetuous for enzyme therapy, gene therapy, insulin therapy, cancer therapy and management of AIDS with the interception of minimal side effects. The present review exhaustively provides an insight to the polymer bioconjugates and their implications for targeted delivery. The article also discusses the therapeutic aspects of these conjugates and that these may serve as fascinating tools for drug delivery.
Keywords: Bioconjugation, polymer, prodrug, drugs, insulin, nanoparticles, brain, colon, DNA, Homobifunctional, heterobifunctional, biodegradable, biodistribution, hydrolytic, Thioether, disulphide, pullulan, mannan, dextrin, hydrophobic, Aspartic acid
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