Obesity among adults, children and adolescents has markedly increased regardless of gender, age, ethnicity or educational level, and has become a national health threat and a major public health challenge. This obesity epidemic can be attributed to excess energy intake and decreased energy expenditure experienced in Westernized countries. Unfortunately, there is no single solution to prevent or treat obesity that will be inclusive of everyone. Often times, treatment of obesity may include a combination of diet, exercise, behavior modification, medication, and sometimes weight-loss surgeries. Hence, bariatric surgery has evolved over the last four decades and has been shown to be effective in reducing obesity related comorbidities, improve the quality of life, number of sick days, monthly medication costs, and overall mortality. With the increasing rates of weight loss surgical procedures, the quality, efficacy and surgical outcomes have improved with the creation of Bariatric Centers of Excellence designated by the American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery or American College of Surgeons. The benefits of bariatric procedures in morbidly obese patients outweigh the risks. With the advent of minimally invasive surgical procedures, bariatric surgery is a reasonable treatment option in those who strongly desire substantial weight loss and have life-threatening comorbid conditions.
Keywords: Obesity, weight loss, bariatric surgery, efficacy, safety, tomography, osteoarthritis, apnea, absorptiometry, polygenic, laparoscopic, anastomosis, armamentarium, jejunocolic, nephropathy
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