Engagement of Renin-Angiotensin System in Prostate Cancer
Angiotensin II (Ang-II) plays a role not only as a vasoconstrictor in controlling blood pressure and electrolyte and fluid homeostasis, but also as a mitogenic factor through the Ang-II type-1 (AT1) receptor in cardiovascular cells. Since a low prevalence of cancer in hypertensive patients receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors has been reported, the molecular mechanisms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in cancer cells have been elucidated. Interestingly, there is increasing evidence that the RAS is implicated in the development of prostate cancer. As previously reported, AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs), a class of antihypertensive agent, have the potential to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells and tumors through the AT1 receptor. This review highlights that the RAS plays a potential role in various aspects of prostate cancer, and ARBs could be useful for treatment of prostate cancer or its chemoprevention.
Keywords: Angiotensin II, angiotensin II receptor blocker, castration resistant prostate cancer, local RAS, prostate cancer, renin-angiotensin system, Dihydrotestosterone, Estradiol, Guanosine phosphate binding protein coupled receptor, Interleukin, Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, Tumor necrosis factor, Vascular endothelial factor, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
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