Angiogenin (ANG), a 14 kDa angiogenic ribonuclease, is upregulated in human prostate cancers, especially in hormone refractory diseases, and is the highest upregulated gene in Akt-driven prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in mice. ANG has been shown to undergo nuclear translocation in both prostate cancer cells and cancer-associated endothelial cells where it binds to the promoter region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and stimulates ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription. ANG thus plays an essential role in prostate cancer progression by stimulating both cancer cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. A variety of ANG antagonists, including its antisense oligonucleotide, siRNA, soluble binding proteins, monoclonal antibody, enzymatic inhibitors, and nuclear translocation blockers, have all been shown to inhibit prostate cancer in various animal models. Accumulating evidence indicates that ANG is a molecular target for prostate cancer drug development.
Keywords: Angiogenin, angiogenesis, prostate cancer, androgen-independence, rRNA transcription, prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, oligonucleotide, chemotherapeutic agents, immunohistochemical, adenocarcinoma, Neomycin, aminoglycoside, synergistic effect, hyperplasia
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