Malaria and HIV/AIDS remain diseases of public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa as both infections are responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. Malaria disproportionately affects young children and pregnant women and HIV/AIDS affects mostly adolescents and young adults. The widespread nature of both infections has led to co-infection in many residents of sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-infected individuals are more susceptible to frequent attacks of malaria thus requiring combination antiretroviral therapy and antimalarial drugs. There is, in general, lack of information on the influence of the chronic use of antiretroviral medicines on the outcome of repeated treatment of malaria. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with HIV medications that lead to sub-therapeutic concentrations of antimalarial drugs will promote drug resistance in patients with malaria. The objective of this review is to summarize the available information on the adverse drug reactions and drug interactions of commonly used antimalarial drugs in the context of combination antiretroviral therapy and propose a clinical pharmacology research plan to develop dosing recommendations for patients with malaria and HIV co-infection.
Keywords: Drug interactions, HIV infection, malaria, antiretroviral therapy, chemoprophylaxis, sub-Saharan Africa, Plasmodium falciparum, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, Cotrimoxazole, chloroquine, Artemisinin
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