This review describes the clinical application of β-adrenergic blocking drugs over time in patients with congestive heart failure. The different pharmacological properties of these drugs in relation to clinical outcomes raise questions as to their optimal desirable profile based on studies showing the undesirable effects of excessive β2-AR activation. The rationale for the use of selective β2-AR antagonists in heart failure is discussed.
Keywords: Selective adrenoceptor blockade, heart failure, MAP/ERK activation
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport