Cytoprotection by Natural and Synthetic Polyphenols in the Heart: Novel Mechanisms and Perspectives
Catherine W.T. Chang,
Gregory J. Dusting.
While many naturally occurring polyphenols have been shown to have therapeutic benefits against myocardial injury following ischemia-reperfusion in various experimental models, our studies have demonstrated that synthetic flavonoids may also have potent cardiac cytoprotective actions. Together with the results reported in the literature, we suggest that synthetic polyphenols may be an ideal replacement for natural compounds in the development of myocardial protective drugs. Polyphenols exert myocardial protective effects via antioxidant activities, preservation of nitric oxide, antiinflammatory activities and modulation of matrix metalloproteinases. Recent studies have identified some novel mechanisms that may also contribute to polyphenol-induced myocardial protection, including prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction, pharmacological preconditioning, and modulation of the function of enzymes involved in epigenetic modifications such as histone acetyltransferases. In addition to the protective effects against acute myocardial injury, there has been experimental evidence showing that polyphenols may also modulate the development of cardiac hypertrophy, ventricular remodeling and fibrosis after myocardial infarction.
Keywords: Polyphenol, synthetic, heart, myocardial cytoprotection, ischemia-reperfusion injury, histone acetyltransferase, mitochondria, preconditioning
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