Vertebrates are armed with an array of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense viral pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Upon activation, the PRRs trigger an interferon response which is central to host antiviral defence. Recent studies have demonstrated that the PRR surveillance system is well conserved in vertebrates during evolution. In fact, most classical PRRs characterised in mammals, such as Toll like receptors and the RIG-I-like receptors, have been identified in lower vertebrates. This review summarises recent progress in PRR recognition of viral PAMPs in teleost fish.
Keywords: Pattern recognition, Toll like receptors, RIG-I like receptor, protein kinase R, teleost fish
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