Nucleic acids are unique molecular recognition elements in biosensors having targets that range from ions, small molecules, peptides, proteins and DNA/RNA to virus and whole cells. Pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic compound with very special photophysical characteristics, including long fluorescence lifetime, high quantum yield, and the capability of forming excited state dimers with large Stokes shift. In recent years, pyrene has been used extensively as a novel signaling element in nucleic acid sensors. In this review, we will discuss the optical properties of pyrene and summarize recent progress in the development of pyrene DNA probes for the sensing of nucleic acids, proteins, and small molecules.
Keywords: DNA sensors, pyrene excimer, fluorescence lifetime, Stokes shift, molecular beacons, binary probes, aptamers, amperometric, piezoelectric, fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, pyrene, deaerated cyclohexane, fluorophores, N-hydroxysuccinimide, HPLC, pyrene succinimidyl ester, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), bis-pyrene labeling strategy, fluorescent non-nucleosidic linker, pyrene nucleoside triphosphate, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), Pyrene-labeled DNA biosensors, fluoro-phore, single nucleotide polymorphisms, dual-pyrene labeled beacon, pyrene-labeled C8 alkylamino-substituted 2'-deoxyguanosine, EPTH, oligonucleotide-polyamide hybrids, mono-pyrene-modified nucleotide, base-discriminating fluorescent nucleobase, bis-pyrene-labeled oligonucleotide, SELEX, (PDGF)-BB, aptamer probe, human -thrombin, potassium-sensing oligonucleotide, G-quadruplex complex, complementary aptamer fragments (CAF)
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