Cells undergo phenotypic changes after exposure to a wide range of exogenous stimuli that include growth factors, proinflammatory cytokines and environmental chemicals. Such stimuli may arise as components of disease pathogenesis and cellular injury, or as a result of exposure to environmental chemicals and radiation. These stimuli modulate the proliferation and differentiation of cells by altering the regulation of genes that control homeostasis. A generalized response appears to be a decline in the expression and function of many cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in liver and other tissues. Thus, individuals who have been exposed to such exogenous stimuli often exhibit a decreased capacity for drug clearance, which has important consequences for concurrent drug therapy. Several signaling pathways transduce exogenous stimuli within cells, with the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) being one of the most important. Evidence is increasing that MAPKs may impair the expression of multiple CYP genes by modulating the activity of transcription factors, including nuclear receptors, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the activator protein-1 complex. MAPKs catalyze the phosphorylation of transcription complexes that incorporate these factors, which modulates their capacity to transactivate target genes, including CYPs. An understanding of the mechanisms that account for the regulatory impact of MAPKs on the transcriptional factors that regulate CYP genes will provide critical insight into the consequences from exposure to injurious stresses that impact cellular function.
Keywords: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, basic leucine-zipper transcription factors, cellular stress, CYP gene regulation, environmental stimuli, MAP kinases, nuclear receptors, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, CYP Genes, ex-ogenous stimuli, P450, pathological stimuli, transcription factors, coactivators, corepressors, androgen, progestin, glucocorticoid, mineralocor-ticoid receptors, hepatic nuclear, Sterol Biotransformation, oxysterol substrates, chenodeoxycholic, lithocholic, deoxycholic acids, phosphorylation, ubiquitin-directed, proteolysis, 26S proteasome, hypoxia, posed to nitrative stress induced by, adrenocorticotropic hormone, angiotensin-II, epoxygenase gene, es-tradiol, estrogen, xenobiotics, CAATT-enhancer binding protein, Cytochrome P450, Extracellular signal-regulated kinas, Hepatocyte nuclear factor, Interleukin, Roles of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in the Regulation of CYP Genes
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