Food Matrix Affecting Anthocyanin Bioavailability: Review
M. Yang, S. I. Koo, W. O. Song and O. K. Chun
Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, 3624 Horsebarn Road Extension Unit 4017, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-4017, USA.
Anthocyanins, abundant in deep-colored fruits and vegetables, have received considerable attention due to their potential health benefits. However, the bioavailability of anthocyanins is relatively low compared to that of other flavonoids. While previous reviews focused on the absorption, metabolism and excretion of anthocyanins, little information is available on the effects of food matrix on anthocyanin bioavailability, particularly food matrices of the usual diet. The present review includes the recent studies on interactive effects of anthocyanins and certain food components. Evidence suggests that the bioavailability of anthocyanins varies markedly depending on food matrices, including other antioxidants and macronutrients present in foods consumed, which consequently affects the absorption and antioxidant capacity of anthocyanins. Further studies are needed to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the interactive effects of anthocyanins and food components in their bioavailability and antioxidant capacity of anthocyanins at the physiological level.
Keywords: Anthocyanins, antioxidants interaction, bioavailability, health benefits, food matrix, food synergy, po-lymethoxy derivatives, flavylium cations, hemiketals, quinoid bases, chalcones, hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase, glucose transporter, hydroxybenzoic acids, High performance liquid chromatography, blackcurrant syrup, phytochemicals, synergistic effect, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide, nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related fac-tor 2, Na+/glucose cotransporter 1, total antioxidant capacity, xanthine oxidase
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