The topic of this review covers a very important branch of cancer research, cancer vaccination. The growing knowledge in tumor immunology has evolved rapidly, starting from unspecific generic stimulation of the immune system to more specific approaches based on the availability of tumor antigens. The review covers molecular and cell biology, and pharmaceutical technology of cancer vaccines. Particularly, it is aimed at highlighting the results of cancer vaccines from phase II and III clinical trials, an issue that is of relevance to better understand how cancer vaccines can successfully complement antitumor therapy, including conventional chemotherapy and the recently developed target-based drugs.
Keywords: Cancer, therapeutic vaccines, immunotherapy, clinical trials, investigational drugs, tumor-associated antigen, morbidity, mortality, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immune system, exogenous agent, phagocytic cells, neutrophils, monocytes, inflammatory mediators, eosinophils, tumor cells, PROPHYLACTIC, dendritic cell (DC), Food Drug Administration (FDA), hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), papillomaviruses, anus, penis, oropharynx, lipid, carbohydrate, infectious disease, autoimmune disease, Alzheimer's, Xenoantigens, DNA, mammalian cells, oligodeoxinucleotide, Bacteria, monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella, Mycobacterium, CANCER VACCINES, growth factors, interleukins, anti-tumor, pharmacological, saponin, phospholipid, lymph node, gels, polymer microspheres, endotoxin, pandemic vaccines, memory cells, surface active agents, aluminium hydroxide, Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Granulocyte, emulsion, Belagenpumatucel-L, lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, heterogeneity of enrolled patients, glioma, liposomal vaccine, mucin-1, placebo, Breast Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Protein, Pharmexa, pancreatic cancer, Vitespen, Melanoma, constipation, dyspnoea, arthralgia, metastatic colorectal cancer, orphan drug, antigen, pyrexia, symptomatic metastatic, long-term memory immune responses, hormone-refractory prostate, Brain, Temozolomide, vulvar disease, pelvic discomfort, dysplasias, Hodgkin's Lymphoma, lymphotoxic molecules, hyperstimulation
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