Nitric Oxide and Disorders of the Erythrocyte: Emerging Roles and Therapeutic Targets
Jason H. Maley,
George F. Lasker,
Philip J. Kadowitz.
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in states of erythrocyte dysfunction, including sickle cell disease (SCD), malaria, and banked blood preservation. By understanding the role of nitric oxide in these conditions, which are accompanied by hemolysis, vasoocclusion, and erythrocyte dysfunction, new therapeutic targets may be identified to treat complications of these disease states. Furthermore, the role of the erythrocyte in the controlled release of NO in hypoxic tissues is of particular interest, and two theories are discussed regarding this mechanism. In this article, the role of nitric oxide in erythrocyte function, sickle cell anemia, malaria, and damage to banked blood is reviewed, and the use of NO targeted therapies for erythrocyte disease states is discussed.
Keywords: Nitric oxide, erythrocyte, malaria, sickle cell disease, banked blood, hemoglobin, hemolysis, erythrocyte dysfunctio, anemia, hypoxic tissues, Bohr effect, glycolytic enzymes, vasoregulatory, eNOS enzyme, methemoglobin, S-Nitrosohemoglobin, hypoxia, Guanylate Cyclase, lipophilic dinitrogen trioxide, xanthine oxidoreductase, Globin, polymerization, arginine, tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity, chest syndrome, plasma, Plasmodium, Plasmodium falciparum, NO bioavailability, L-arginine, asymmetrical dimethylarginine, arginine methyltransferases, acid citrate dextrose (ACD), pneumonia, length of stay (LOS)
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