Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in the United States. Although it is recognized that moderate intensity long-term exercise can decrease the chances of dying from cardiovascular disease by favorably modifying risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance, physical activity also enhances longevity by mechanisms independent of these risk factors. This review briefly summarizes what is known about the inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis and how long-term aerobic exercise can reduce the atherogenic activity of endothelial cells, blood mononuclear cells, and adipose tissue.
Keywords: Exercise, cardiovascular disease, cardiorespiratory fitness, atherogenesis, vascular endothelial cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, adipose tissue, inflammation, cell-mediated immunity, hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, immunopathogenesis, vascular endothelial cells (VEC), Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, heat shock protein 60 (Hsp 60), chemokines, prostacyclin PGI2, adrenomedullin, granulopoiesis, immunogens, metalloproteinases, phosphorylation, eNOS protein, adipocytes, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, adipokines, monocytes
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