A Proposal----The Renal Kallikrein-Kinin System as a Compensating System for Salt Accumulation after Excess Salt Intake
Terrestrial mammals, like human, must reserve water and NaCl to counter the effects of dry-environments. Their kidneys need to reabsorb as much water and sodium as possible along the proximal tubules and collecting duct. Thus, excess sodium intake tends to sodium accumulation in the body. The renal (tissue) kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) exists to prevent excessive sodium reabsorption. Renal kallikrein is secreted from the distal connecting tubule cells, which are located just distal to the major reabsorbing system. Kallikrein releases kinins, which inhibit sodium reabsorption along the collecting ducts. The kinins in the tubules are quickly destroyed by kidney-specific destroying enzymes (kininases), carboxypeptidase Y-like exopeptidase and neutral endopeptidase, which differ completely from those in plasma. Ebelactone B and poststatin were discovered as selective inhibitors of urinary kininases. Excess sodium intake causes hypertension, since sodium accumulation in the blood vessel walls increases sensitivity to hypertensive agents. Potassium, and ATP-sensitive potassium channel blockers cause renal kallikrein secretion. In bradykinin B2 receptor gene knockout mice, tissue kallikrein gene knockout mice, and kininogen-deficient rats, the knockout or deficiency does not itself induce hypertension, but these animals are salt-sensitive. Mutant kininogen-deficient (kinin-free) rats on 2% sodium intake quickly develop hypertension. Urinary kininase inhibitors reduce high blood pressure due to sodium accumulation on high sodium intake. Our ample supporting data suggest that the renal KKS prevents sodium accumulation, and that reduced levels of renal kallikrein may cause salt-sensitive hypertension.
Keywords: Excess salt intake, The renal kallikrein-kinin system, Potassium, ATP-sensitive potassium channel blockers, Ebelactone B, Poststatin, Neutral endopeptidase, Renal Kallikrein-Kinin System, Renal kallikrein, Y-like exopeptidase, urinary kininases, Mutant kininogen-deficient, kallikrein-kinin system, renin-angiotensin system, systemic blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzymes, lysyl-bradykinin, bradykinin, kallikrein-secreting cells, Henle's loop, BK-B2 antagonist, carboxypeptidase Y-like exopeptidase, human urinary kininases, epithelial Na channels, Rattus norvegicus, LMW kininogens, cerebrospinal fluid, deoxycorticosterone acetate, Weinberger's group
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