Diabetes mellitus, an epidemic metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose level associated with various macrovascular and microvascular complications, is one of the main causes of human suffering across the globe. Researchers around the world mainly focused on insulin, insulin analogues, oral hypoglycemic agents and various other complementary and alternate medicines to control the blood glucose levels in diabetes. The present review summarizes the disorders associated with elevation of blood glucose level, biochemical & endocrinological aspects and the current strategies to control. The emphasis has been laid in particular on the new potential biological targets and the possible treatment as well as the current ongoing research status on new generation hypoglycemic agents.
Keywords: Diabetes, insulin, carbohydrate metabolism, sulfonylurea, thiazolidindione, carbohydrate, lipids, lipoprotein, hyperglycemia, nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, T1DM, T2DM, GDM, Cystic Fibrosis, Cushing's syndrome, MHC, TH, NK, CD8, CD4, Genetic Factors, Down's syndrome, fibrinolysis, free fatty acids, glucose, Lipid Metabolism, ketone bodies, VLDL, Glucagon, Catecholamines, Growth Hormone, Glucocorticoids, DNA, Cytokines, NOS, KATP, SUR, ATP, Biguanides, Meglitinide Analogues, Thiazolidindiones, Ocimum santum, antioxidant activity, Allicin, Leucodelphinidine, Charantin, Bumelia sartorum, glycogenolysis, PPAR, GLP-1, LA, IKK, Mifepristone, DPP IV, Amylin Analog, PTP 1B, PTPase, OBA, TC-PTP
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