Anti-Angiogenic Therapies for Children with Cancer
Tumor angiogenesis, i.e. the development of neovascularisation in and around solid tumors, plays a key role in the local and distant growth of cancer and anti-angiogenic treatments are now established strategies to treat cancer patients. Specific inhibitors of angiogenesis such as bevacizumab or receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting VEGFR or PDGFR are now in clinical trials and are being increasingly validated for the treatment of poor prognostic cancers. Other anti-angiogenic strategies such as cilengitide or metronomic chemotherapy (low-dose anti-angiogenic chemotherapy) have been developed to treat certain types of adult cancer. In children, the clinical potential of anti-angiogenic approach is still in an early stage of investigation. This review will focus on the role of angiogenesis in pediatric solid tumors and will describe the pre-clinical and clinical experience with several anti-angiogenic compounds as a potential treatment for children with cancer.
Keywords: Children, oncology, angiogenesis, treatment, metronomic, VEGF, Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, (VEGF), stromal cells, thrombospondin, platelet-derived, progenitor cells (EPC), Stem cell factor (SCF), immunohistochemically, Pediatric Malignancies, Wilms'tumor, hepatoblastoma, local erythema, Circulating endothelial, cells (CEC, EPC), proteinuria, lymphocytopenia, diencephalic syndrome, remains mandatory, dimerization, Sunitinib, xenografts, 6 rhabdomyosarcoma, medulloblastoma cells, autophosphorylation, neovascularisation, osteosarcoma xenografts, PDGFR, classical NSAIDs, Cilengitide, intra-tumoral haemorrhage, Metronomic Chemotherapy, killing paradigm, oral cyclophosphamide, temozolomide, Empiricism, emphasizing, progression-free survival, infiltrating leukocytes, CNS, DLT, TKI
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