Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common internal malignancy and the third most frequent cause of cancer death in men. It is estimated that in each week of 2009 over 490 Canadian men were diagnosed with PCa, and 85 will have died from the disease. The introduction of PSA (prostate-specific antigen) screening tests has contributed in part, to men being diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Chemoprevention is a strategy whereby patients are administered drugs, vitamins, or other agents to prevent/reduce the risk of cancer progression and/ or delay the development of its recurrence thereby decreasing patient morbidity and mortality. PCa has a long latency period, thereby offering plenty of opportunity to intervene through the implementation of chemopreventive therapies. A large body of epidemiologic evidence, together with published data from in vivo and in vitro studies, strongly supports relationships between dietary constituents and the risk of prostate cancer. This article aims to review the diverse aspects of chemoprevention including the benefit of both macro- and micronutrients that have been implicated in prostate cancer prevention. In addition we discuss perspectives on the putative mechanisms of selected chemopreventive agents and highlight several clinical studies using specific chemopreventive interventions.
Keywords: Prostate cancer, diet, micronutrients, flavonoids, in vivo, clinical trials, Chemoprevention, malignancy, Prostate Specific Antigen, Hi-Myc transgenic PCa mouse model, Insulin-like growth factor binding protein, hyperinsulinemia, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, Curcumin, turmeric, lycopene, vitamin D, antioxidants, carcinogenesis, vitamin E, selenium, resveratrol, IGF-1 expression, a-,b-,g- and d- isoforms, PI3K pathways, sphingolipid synthesis, elenomethionine, selenocystine, methylseleninic acid, LNCaP cells, androgenresponsive genes, Ellagic Acid, cyclooxygenase-2, severe combined immunodeficient, Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene
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