Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide among both men and women, with more than 1 million deaths annually. Non – small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 80% of all lung cancers. Although recent advances have been made in diagnosis and treatment strategies, the prognosis of NSCLC patients is poor and it is basically due to a lack of early diagnostic tools. However, in the last years genetic and biochemical studies have provided more information about the protein and genes mutations involved in lung tumors. Additionally, recent proteomic and microRNAs approaches have been introduced to help biomarker discovery. Here we would like to discuss the most recent discoveries in lung cancer pathways, focusing on the genetic and epigenetic factors that play a crucial role in malignant cell proliferation, and how they could be helpful in diagnosis and targeted therapy.
Keywords: Lung cancer, oncosuppressors, oncogenes, epigenetics of lung cancer, diagnostic tools for lung cancer, cancer, epigenetics, diagnostic, NSCLC, SCLC, KRAS, ERBB2, EGFR, MET, NKX2-1, PIK3CA, SRC, RB1, XRCC1, DAPK1, hTERT, CT, PET, TBNA, EBUS, ERCC1, proteins, miRNAs
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