Novel and Current Treatment Concepts Using Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Affiliation: Institute of Pharmacology, Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Waehringerstrasse 13A, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.
The novel technologies in pulmonary drug delivery propelled the development of new strategies for pharmacological intervention in human diseases. In particular, this review will focus on pulmonary parameters which influence the delivery of inhaled therapeutics and summarize novel applications and recent innovations. The central issues of pulmonary drug application are optimal effectiveness under conditions of greatest safety. They not only depend on the properties of the drug but also feature the application vehicle and drug formulation. The optimization of the whole system (drug, formulation and vehicle) is therefore a necessary prerequisite for reliable inhaling medicines. Depending on the desired locus of drug action, the inhaled medicine has to be adjusted to particle size, concentration and chemical composition to guarantee a local or systemic drug action. Local asthma therapy represents the established concept for inhalation therapy. Due to the disease status, deposition of drugs is therefore often seen in central rather than peripheral airways. Recent developments in ultrafine therapeutic particles should therefore provide enough drug deposition even in the deeper airways. Recent approvals and interesting new therapy concepts will be discussed. Beside a pulmonary drug action there is an accumulating number of applications also for systemic drug action after pulmonary drug delivery. These involve among others inhaled insulin, glucagon-like-peptide 1 or growth hormone. But also novel therapeutic systems for gene therapy and vaccination are currently under investigation. Successful feasibility of these novel concepts will be expected in the near future.
Keywords: Pulmonary drug delivery, nanoparticles, insulin, growth hormone, glucagon like peptide-1, tacrolimus, morphine
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