We discuss experimental observations of DNA uptake induced by electropermeabilisation. First we describe how experiments on giant unilamellar vesicles can be used to understand the effect of electric fields on lipid membranes and the associated transfer of DNA across the plasma membrane. We then discuss how DNA interacts with electropermeabilised cells in culture and how gene expression is correlated to observations of interactions between DNA and the cell membrane. Finally we discuss how DNA uptake occurs and can be optimised for the most medically relevant case of tissues.
Keywords: Delivery, electric field, electroporation, gene transfer, membrane, microscopy
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