Mechanisms Underlying the Hepatotoxic Effects of Ecstasy

Author(s): Marcia Carvalho, Helena Pontes, Fernando Remiao, Maria L. Bastos, Felix Carvalho.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 11 , Issue 5 , 2010

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Abstract:

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is a worldwide illegally used amphetamine-derived designer drug known to be hepatotoxic to humans. Jaundice, hepatomegaly, centrilobular necrosis, hepatitis and fibrosis represent some of the adverse effects caused by MDMA in the liver. Although there is irrefutable evidence of MDMA-induced hepatocellular damage, the mechanisms responsible for that toxicity remain to be thoroughly clarified. One well thought-of mechanism imply MDMA metabolism in the liver into reactive metabolites as responsible for the MDMA-elicited hepatotoxicity. However, other factors, including MDMA-induced hyperthermia, the increase in neurotransmitters efflux, the oxidation of biogenic amines, polydrug abuse pattern, and environmental features accompanying illicit MDMA use, may increase the risk for liver complications. Liver damage patterns of MDMA in animals and humans and current research on the mechanisms underlying the hepatotoxic effects of MDMA will be highlighted in this review.

Keywords: Ecstasy, MDMA, hepatotoxicity, liver damage, mechanisms

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Article Details

VOLUME: 11
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2010
Page: [476 - 495]
Pages: 20
DOI: 10.2174/138920110791591535
Price: $58

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