Introduction: Intranasal drug administration is a non-invasive method of bypassing the blood—brain barrier (BBB) to deliver therapeutic agents to the brain and spinal cord. This method also delivers those drugs that do not cross the BBB to the central nervous system (CNS) thus eliminating the need for systemic delivery, and subsequently reducing the unwanted systemic side effects. Delivery from the nose- to-brain occurs within minutes along both the olfactory and trigeminal neural pathways. Materials and Methods: Rat model was developed to determine existence of neural and non neural pathways after nasal delivery in rats. For the study mucoadhesive nanoparticles were prepared by ionic crosslinking method and the study was investigated using intranasal administration of Tc99m labeled chitosan nanoparticulate formulation in dead and alive rats. Result: The result showed a significant increase of 4.4 times radiolabeled drug concentration in the brain of live rats as compared to the radiolabeled drug concentration in the dead rats (p < 0.01). Conclusion This experimental rat model provides a proof for existence of neural and non-neural pathway for nose to brain using a novel formulation for crossing BBB which is of importance in finding a solution for neurodegenerative disorders.
Keywords: Olfactory, trigeminal, radiolabeled, nose-to-brain, nasal drug delivery, neural, non-neural
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