Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is a rare malignancy, which can occur after any type of pregnancy. The incidence varies according to the geographical location and ethnic origin. Although most patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are cured by conventional chemotherapy and surgery, some suffer resistant disease and may die. New therapeutic agents are needed to reduce the toxicity associated with conventional chemotherapy and treat those with resistant or refractory disease. Molecular targeted treatment provides an exciting avenue; however, the biology of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is not well understood. This review briefly summarises recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and molecular biology of this group of diseases and sheds light on molecules that could provide potential therapeutic targets.
Keywords: Molar pregnancy, gestational trophoblastic disease, choriocarcinoma, trophoblast, pathogenesis, target therapy, methylation, folate
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