Recently it has been reported that low serum IL-10 levels are associated with an increased susceptibility for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated whether the -1087G/A (rs1800896), -824C/T (rs1800871), -597C/A (rs1800872) IL-10 polymorphisms were associated with type 2 diabetes in a study on a cohort of Italian Caucasians comprising 490 type 2 diabetic and 349 control subjects. Stratifying the data according to IL-10 genotypes, trends for the progressive increase of glucose and neutrophil levels were observed in -1087GG vs. -1087GA vs. -1087AA positive diabetic patients (-1087GG < -1087GA < -1087AA). In addition, evaluating the laboratory parameters according to the -597/-824/-1087 derived haplotypes a significant increase of neutrophils was found in diabetic vs. non-diabetic -597A/ -824T/-1087A positive subjects (Student t test = 3.707, p < 0.01). In an attempt to integrate clinical laboratory and immunogenetic data to determine whether these factors taken together define sufficient risk sets for type 2 diabetes we performed the grade-of-membership analysis (GoM). GoM allowed to identify a population of subjects negative for IL-10 - 824T allele, 74.4 of which were diabetic patients characterised by vascular damages (Chronic kidney failure and/or Myocardial Infarction), reduction of haematocrit, increase of blood urea nitrogen, creatinin and monocyte levels. These data seem to suggest that - 597A/-824T/-1087A negative subjects are more prone to the major type 2 diabetic vascular damages and allow to hypothesise that the contemporary evaluation of some simple hematochemical parameters and IL-10 SNPs may allow identifying diabetic patients with the worse prognostic profile, needing both better complication prevention planning and therapeutic strategies.
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, IL-10 genotypes, risk profile, chronic kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, grade of membership
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