Toll-like Receptor 4 Mediates LPS-Induced Release of Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α by Embryonal Cardiomyocytes: Biological Significance and Clinical Implications in Human Pathology

Author(s): M. A. Panaro, N. Gagliardi, C. Saponaro, R. Calvello, V. Mitolo, A. Cianciulli.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 16 , Issue 7 , 2010

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Abstract:

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) the major structural component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contributes to the cardiovascular collapse and death observed in septic patients, as well as in the immunocompromised host. LPS activates multiple cells to release proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive molecules able to depress cardiac functions. It has been appreciated that the pattern recognition receptor, TLR4, is a signalling receptor for LPS, but its role in the embryonal cardiomyocytes is poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence for TLR4-dependent functional responses by LPS treated embryonal cardiomyocytes. It will be reported that LPS is able to induce TNF-α and NO release from cultured cardiomyocytes, while molecular and morphological evidence demonstrates the expression of TLR4 on surface membrane of embryonal cardiomyocytes. LPS-induced signalling was studied evaluating the expression of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducer and activators of transcription (STAT) protein families in response to LPS. The role of TLR4 was investigated with blocking assays using monoclonal antibody against this endotoxin receptor. Our results indicated that LPS-induced activation of signal transduction in embryonal cardiomyocytes occurs by a TLR4-dependent mechanism. In summary, chick embryonal cardiomyocytes may constitute a valid experimental model in order to study the LPS induced inflammatory responses by cardiomyocytes, useful not only to identify the signalling pathways evoked by endotoxin receptor, including TLR4, but also to suggest therapeutic targets for the control of myocardial dysfunction induced by infectious agents. In this respect, in elderly a continuous leakage of LPS from gut flora and/or external environment should be regarded as a possible cause of cardiac failure and, therefore, adequately prevented or treated.

Keywords: Toll like receptor 4, lipopolysaccharide, cardiomyocyte, embryo, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α

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Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 7
Year: 2010
Page: [766 - 774]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/138161210790883624
Price: $58

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