Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a grave medical entity with potentially fatal end results. The disease encompasses a rather small but, in the same time, vital part of IE incidents that is probable to be augmented in future years. PVE occurs in 1-4% of valve recipients during the first year following valve replacement, and in approximately 1 % per year afterwards. The type of prosthetic valve (mechanical versus bioprosthetic) seems not having an impact on the rate of development of IE and it is comparable in both groups (0.8 cases per year of follow-up). The pathogenetic mechanisms, pathogens implicated, clinical features and diagnostic approach of PVE will be reviewed here, along with the antibacterial and potential surgical treatment and prevention of the disease.