The use of nanoscale structures and features is becoming increasingly popular in tissue engineering, and for good reason. Devices that have features in the nano-length scale offer many benefits that their counterparts do not. These features can alter cellular behavior including cell attachment, degree of cell spreading, and cellular alignment. These properties affect the arrangement of extracellular matrix material produced by attached cells. Nano to micro-scale porosity is important for cellular infiltration into long term or degradable implants. Features of this length scale model the structures that cells typically see in vivo, therefore they tend to respond positively when placed on nano length structures. The inclusion of nanoscale features or use of nanoscale structures improves the cellular response to the implant and increases tissue bonding thereby reducing the chances of implant failure. Nanoscale structures can also enhance device strength; by combining nanoscale, high moduli particles with more flexible, weaker materials one can create high strength composites for bone tissue engineering. There are a host of ways to create nanostructures or create nanoscale features on an implant including electrospinning, nanoetching, and the creation of nanospheres. They all produce roughness, pores, or alignment in the nanoscale which is essential for tissue engineering success. These techniques encompass a wide range of materials and methods. Several of these techniques and their applications will be discussed in this paper.