Ribonucleases degrade RNA, now considered an important drug target. The parent member of this protein superfamily is bovine pancreatic RNase A that functions as a digestive enzyme. Other physiological roles and activities have been ascribed to more recently discovered members of this superfamily. Angiogenin was isolated by following angiogenic activity from cell culture media conditioned by colon cancer cells. ONCONASE kills tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has advanced to a phase IIIb confirmatory clinical trial for the treatment of unresectable malignant mesothelioma. All three of these RNA degrading enzymes have been used to generate immunoRNases; chemical conjugates and ligand- RNase fusion proteins, for cancer therapy. The properties of each of these RNases are described along with the increasingly sophisticated construction of recombinant immunoRNases. The advantages of using RNase as an antibody payload is compared to using plant or bacterial toxins in the construction of immunotoxins, a related strategy for specifically killing malignant cells.